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Wednesday, August 12, 2020 | History

2 edition of Exploratory study of the initiation of low-density PETN by hydrogen-oxygen detonation waves found in the catalog.

Exploratory study of the initiation of low-density PETN by hydrogen-oxygen detonation waves

# Exploratory study of the initiation of low-density PETN by hydrogen-oxygen detonation waves

Written in English

Subjects:
• Pentaerythritol tetranitrate.,
• Detonators.

• Edition Notes

Classifications The Physical Object Statement by A. H. Makomaski. Series Mechanical engineering report MT, 59 LC Classifications TJ1 .M45 no. 59 Pagination viii, 65 p. Number of Pages 65 Open Library OL5387831M LC Control Number 72574528

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### Exploratory study of the initiation of low-density PETN by hydrogen-oxygen detonation waves by A. H. Makomaski Download PDF EPUB FB2

Explosion Characteristics of Hydrogen-Air and Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixtures at Elevated Pressures Schroeder, V.1 and Holtappels, K.1 1Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –pruefung (BAM), Unter den Eic Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT An essential problem for the operation of high pressure water electrolyzers and fuel cells is theFile Size: KB.

This paper compares two methods of near-threshold initiation of a loose-packed PETN charge: by impact of a plate and by injection of an intense flow of hot gases into the powder. Synchrotron diagnostics of material density was used. Both methods lead to the development of detonation in about 10 μs, but the nature of initiation differs by: 1.

(initiation energy, detonability limit, critical diameter) • Detonation sensitivity of high pressure H 2-air mixtures does not increase as other hydrocarbon fuels do • Transition and onset of detonation (i.e. quantitative description of turbulent flame acceleration, condition for the onset of detonation.

Explosion limits of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture in a spherical KCl-coated vessel of cm diameter. The open cycles are the experimental data abstracted from Ref.

tion wave. The study has demonstrated the potential of the present models to effectively assess the explosion and detonation hazards in hydrogen facilities.

KEYWORDS: Hydrogen, deﬂagration, detonation INTRODUCTION Hydrogen is one of the possible candidates as major energy carriers in the future. Hydrogen as fuel has the highest. Test results of initiation threshold values with tungsten spheres of different diameters d and Lexan spheres of 76 mm diameter can be very well described by the u 2 d‐Held‐criterion where u is the cratering velocity or ${\rm v/(1 + }\sqrt {\varrho _{\rm t} /\varrho _{\rm p})}$.For covered Composition B the initiation threshold value is 23 mm 3 /μs 2.

The explosion of PETN of density g/cm3 was first initiated by the second-harmonic pulse of a Q-switched neodymium laser. It is shown that the primary process of energy absorption in this case is PETN molecule ionization involving two-photon absorption.

The critical initiation energy density corresponding to a % probability of explosion is J/cm2. In this study, the essential factors governing the Z-shaped explosion limits of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are studied using eigenvalue analysis.

In particular, it is demonstrated that the wall destruction of H and HO 2 is essential for the occurrence of the first and third limits, while that of O, OH, and H 2 O 2 play secondary, quantitative roles for such limits.

The propagation of this pressure wave is seen in frames 4 and 5. Frame 6 shows a detonation (bright light) at the top of the channel. This bright light appeared about the same time as the pressure wave from the local explosion reached the flame front.

In the last two frames the detonation grew to encompass the entire cross section of the channel. An exploratory study of the behavior of the detonation products from condensed explosives was conducted wherein a small charge of explosive was detonated at the closed end of a cannon, and.

Shigeoka Hydrogen Detonation in Semi-confined Layers 27th ICDERS – July 28th - August 2nd, – Beijing, China 4 fluctuate dramatically. However, around x/l 1/2 =the number of triple points decreases to one digit.

In the following data, the stable section, 0. The focus here is the energetic material, specifically in the areas of shock-to-detonation transition, critical or failure diameter, deflagration-to-detonation transition, delayed detonation and initiation by thermal means, impact, friction or electrostatic discharge.

Current energetic material test methods are reviewed, deficiencies in these. Considering the instant scenario, the hydrogen-oxygen equivalence ratio is (ignoring for the moment the water vapor) and T o ois K. Under these conditions the hydrogen detonation cell width (λ) is cm and λ/D = cm/ cm = At this λ/D value, DDT is possible if other conditions are favorable.

However, under the. most important characteristics is its low density, which makes it necessary for any practical applications to either compress the hydrogen or liquefy it.

It is positively buoyant above a temperature of 22 K, i.e., over (almost) the whole temperature range of its gaseous state. Fig. Phase diagram of hydrogen. A unique, patent pending, thermoacoustic propellant densifier, that simultaneously densifies liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants for aerospace vehicles is introduced.

The thermoacoustic densifier consists of a two‐stage pulse tube cryocooler that operates at 30 Hz using helium as the working fluid. The extremely reliable pulse tube has no moving parts, is water cooled. Environmental science, however, is the study of the interrelatedness of ALL of the components of an environment.

Give two examples of producers and two examples of consumers. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Plants and animals do not respond. On January 8,a hydrogen explosion at the Muskingum River Power Plant’s MW coal-fired supercritical Unit 5 caused one fatality, injuries to 10 other people, and significant damage to.

An illustration of an open book. Books. An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video. An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio. An illustration of a " floppy disk.

Software. An illustration of two photographs. Images. An illustration of a heart shape Donate. An illustration of text ellipses. Detonation Engine Simulations with Alternative Reaction Kinetics and Geometrical Features, He, X. and Karagozian, A.

R., Paper 03F, Western States Section/The Combustion Institute Fall. Combining two parts hydrogen with one part oxygen gets dramatic when you add a little energy. POW.

This is Steve Spangler’s unique twist on combining these two gases in hopes of “sparking” your curiosity about hydrogen as an alternative energy source. Study of the production of hydrogen bubbles at low current densities for electroflotation processes. Carlos Jiménez. Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla‐La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n., Ciudad Real, Spain.

Search for more papers by this author.The abundances of metals in the intergalactic medium (IGM) can be used to constrain the amount of star formation at high redshift and the spectral shape of the ionizing background radiation.

For both purposes, it is essential to measure the abundances in regions of low density, away from local sources of metals and ionizing photons. Here we report the first detection of O VI in the low-density.Hydrogen leak detection – low cost distributed gas sensors Bill Hoagland Element One, Inc.

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